Performance management involves the organization and it is considered as a fundamental process for the construction ability and competence of each individual in the organization. “Performance is also important for the individual. Accomplishing tasks and performing at a high level can be a source of satisfaction, with feelings of mastery and pride” (Tesluk, Hoffman & Quigley, 2002).The performance management can be related to the concept of motivation as quoted above. Besides the link Performance management-Motivation, we also have the link Performance Management-Culture Organizational, those are links very important when it comes to performance management at work, due to the fact that the organizations live through those concepts daily. “The high relevance of individual performance is also reflected in work and organizational psychological research” (Tesluk, Hoffman & Quigley, 2002). In order to evaluate workers the organization must have a performance management ruler’s encompass a parameter of rationality and equilibrium of human thinking and behavior as well for the evaluator and evaluated. Also a ruler most analyze the development of the employer and standardize all the valuation at the same level. Besides, it’s important to be clear, fair and tell what the organizations see and expect of the employer.There is a reason why the individuals perform differently and also factors that influences them directly, those are: (1) declarative knowledge: this determinant requires that the individual understands the information about facts, principles, labels and goals, meaning that it has to study about the concepts and the values of the organization; (2) procedural knowledge: it is the requirement of cognitive, physical, perceptual, motor and interpersonal skills so the employee would be able to perform in the best way all the information acquired, matching “what to do” with “how to do it” ; and (3) motivation: this determinant is composed with three different levels of effort, with the aim to reflect the determination, enthusiasm, ambition and initiative of the employee. The three topics of choice behavior are: (1) Choice to expend effort; (2) Choice of level of effort; (3) Choice to persist in the expenditure of that level of effort. The first topic is the minimum that the worker would be willing to do, such as just showing up to work, the second topic is the level of effort the worker would like to achieve. Finally, the third topic is the wish of the individual to maintain, persist and improve the effort. Those determinants of performance are associated and one it depends on another, due to the fact that if one of them is lacking, even though the employee has an excellent performance at the others determinants, the individual won’t achieve a good performance. “If any of the determinants has a value of 0, then performance also has a value of 0.” Summing up: “Performance = Declarative Knowledge + Procedural Knowledge + Motivation.” (Aguinis, 2013). The question is how can we achieve excellence ang going on improving and to be able of constantly improvement it must “deliberate practice” and not only practice, because there is a huge difference between investing time, knowledge, study and getting feedbacks with just repeating a task without understanding it very well. When we talk about performance management it comes the idea of how we can measure that in a good way or the best way with orientation to standardizing the management practices and survive globally (Pudelko & Harzing, 2007; Rowley, Hon-Fun & Warner, 2011). Establish a ruler for that is more difficult part that researches are trying to resolve or propose new ways and forms to do that in order to propose the best way to evaluate the employee (Knappert, Lena, 2013).But why is it so difficult? A performance management ruler’s most be a good parameter of equalization and equilibrium of human thinking as well for the evaluated as for the evaluator, it has to considerate the perceived of justice in the system (McKenna, 2011). When we talk of people, we work more with subjectivity than rationality and analyzing performance management we’re trying to put parameter on the human thinking, trying to standardize that. Furthermore, we’re attempting to frame the perception of good – or not – performance of people. The most problem in the performance management’s system is the employer being responsible for behaviors on the past; emphasis on reward and lack of collaboration and innovation on the process. (Cappeli & Tavis, 2016)
So construct a ruler that can support it is a challenge. But what is a ruler? It’s something we can apply value. A performance managementruler’s can be three colors, numbers, triangles, it can be even lines in the cube that we can apply concept of growth and development. A perfect ruler must be shown the concepts in a clear and easy way; concern for the development of people; responsibility to individual and team results; perceive of justice in the employer’s perspective; oriented to the goals of the company and the team and follow the natural cycle of work. (Cappeli & Tavis, 2016). Finally, get the excellence’s performance –with the manager telling what the organization think and wants from you- is the point about all the performance management (Cappeli & Tavis, 2016).Although there are many factors that constitute achievement in an organization, having mixed quantitative and qualitative variables that are transversal to each other, current research focuses on the formation of KPI's (Key Performance Indicator) to facilitate the visualization of the performance, even to try to transform a qualitative character in quantitative, for example, can cite a customer satisfaction survey that transforms the quality of care into a number data. Among the most used KPIs in the corporate world are the “Service Level Agreement” - which is an indicator that shows the response time between an action requisition and the action itself, thus appointing the most efficient area taking time as the main resource, this way you know where you have to increase the speed of a process or reduce it to try to elevate the quality-; “Turnover” - which shows the percentage of dismissals / admissions of an institution, allowing an analysis of the number of employees of a company leaving, and then recognize if the turnover is high or not and why this happens -; and “Market share” - that shows the market stake that the company owns, data that must to be compared with other factors in a more macro way to understand the reflexes of actions in a large perspective. For this reason, the more accurate the analysis level, the easier it is to detect problems in the operation and to try to deal with it faster in a precise way. This method promotes a new international business thinking such as “fall fast”, which is a concept that promotes continuous study of changes of behavior to analyze the results, being based on the KPI's in a cross and or in an individual way, taking into account the quantitative factors, but also the qualitative ones, which allows the determination of a parameter of the "why" not only "of what", and, this way, change the strategy to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of actions.
CAPPELI, Peter; TAVIS, Anna. The revolution of performance management. Harvard Bussines Review Brazil, São Paulo, p. 38-48, out. 2016.
JUNIOR, José Renato Sátiro Santiago. The performance evaluations from the point of view of employees. Harvard Bussines Review Brazil, São Paulo, p. 62-67, out. 2016.
AGUINIS, Herman. Performance management. 3 ed. United states: Pearson education, 2013. 87-105 p.
Tesluk, P. Hofmamn, D.,& Quigley, N. (2002). Integrating the linkages between organizationl culture and individual outcames at work. In S. Sonnentag (Ed.). Psychological management of individual performance (pp. 441-470). New York: Willey.
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